考SAT和AP的同学们不能错过的美国历史-美国宪法

来源:未知日期:2019-01-10 16:35 浏览:

 苗长江

考SAT和AP的同学们都知道,学习美国历史对着两科都比较有用,今天深圳通才教育的苗老师为同学们带来的是:美国宪法的思想来源

 

(图片来源于网络)

 

1、启蒙运动 (The Enlightenment)

The framers of the constitution lived in a period of intellectual ferment known as the Englightment

美国国父们都生活在一个启蒙的时代

 

European political thinker and writers challenged tradiional views of the relationship between the people and their government

 欧洲政治思想家和作家挑战质疑传统关于人民和政府之间的关系

 

Englighted ideas took root in the Ameriancolonies,where they became the dominant philosophical and political views of the times .leader such as benjamin  franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and james Madison used enlightened ideas to justify their opposition to the british government 

美国先贤国父富兰克林, 杰弗逊,麦迪逊这些人给反对英国政府提供了正当理由

 

 

 

2、启蒙运动思想有哪些

Reason 理性

Reason meant the absence of intolerance, bigotry, and superstition

理性意味着宽容,开明以及科学

Reason could be used solve social problems and improve society

理性能被用于解决社会问题和提高社会文明程度

(图片来源于网络)

 

Natural laws 自然法则的定义是什么?

 

Natural law (Latin: ius naturale, lexnaturalis)is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason. As determined by nature, the law of nature is implied to be objective and universal (自然法则是一种哲学思想,它认为人的一些权力是天生固有的,是自然给与的。传统来说是上帝或者超验思想给予的,;人们通过理性是可以普遍理解的. 自然法则是有自然决定的,它具有客观性和普遍性。

it exists independently of human understanding, and of the positive law of a given state, political order, legislature or society at large.

 

Natural laws regulate human society.

(自然法则调节人类社会)

These natural laws can be discovered by human reason

(人的理性可以发现自然法则)

Progress 进步

Social progress is possible

(社会进步是有可能的)

The discovery of. Laws of government would improve societyand make.progress inevitable 

(法治政府的发现能够提高社会进步)

Liberty 自由

Europeans lived in societies governed by absolute monarchs who restricted speech, religion, and trade

(欧洲人生活在君主王朝时代,他们限制言论自由,宗教自由和贸易自由)

Enlightened writers wanted to remove these limitations on human liberty

(启蒙作家想要去除人类自由的限制)

Enlightened thinker believed that intellectual freedom wasa natural right. Progress required freedom of expression

(启蒙思想家认为思想自由是天赋人权,人类进步需要言论自由)

 

Toleration 容忍

Enlightened thinkers opposed superstition, intolerance, and bigotry

(启蒙思想家反对迷信,固执)

They advocated full religious tolerance

(他们倡导完全的宗教自由)

 

 

 

影响美国宪法的重要思想家:

1、JohnLocke (1632-1704) (约翰,洛克)

Locke argued that people are born with natural rights that include life , liberty ,and property(洛克认为人类天生就有的权利包括生命,自由和财产权)

 

People form governments to preserve their natural rights.Government is there for based on the consent of the governed (人们组成政府就是为了保证这些自然权利,政府是基于被统治者的同意而建立的)

 

Government is a contract in which rules promise to protect the people’s natural rights

If rulers betray the social contract, the people have aright to replace them (政府和人们有契约权利,政府保护人民的自然权利,如果统治者违反了这些社会契约,人们有权推翻它)

 

 

2、Charles de Montesquieu (1689-1755)(孟德斯鸠)

In his spirit of the laws,  Montesquieu conclude that the ideal government separated powers among legiative, executive, and judicial branches (在论法的精神一书中,孟德斯鸠总结到理想的政府应是三权分立:立法,行政,司法)

 

The system of divided authority would protect the rights ofindividuals by preventing one branch of government from gaining unrestricted control over the entire society (分权政府不能获得无限制权力来保护个人的权利)

 

 

3、Jean -jacquesrousseau(1712-1778)(卢梭)

In his social contract, rousseau argued that the sovereign power in a state does not lie in a ruler. instead, it resides I the general will of the community as a whole.(在社会契约论著作中,卢梭认为一个政府至高无上的权力不能在一个统治者手中,相反,它应该反应整体社会的意志)

 

Rulers are the servants of the community. If they fail to carry out the people’s will ,they should be removed.(统治者是社会的公仆,如果她们不能执行人民的意志,他们应该离开)

 

 

本期作者简介:

end

深圳通才教育的创始人荣菲。教学经验8年,曾任深圳某知名培训机构前教学负责人,雅思托福官方双认证教师,编写雅思托福写作教材,会持续在公众号发布有关雅思、托福等有关学习干货,欢迎关注。

 
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